Edited Volume:

Human Amygdala - The Whalen Lab

Whalen PJ & Phelps EA (EDs.).
The Human Amygdala.
2009. Guilford:New York.

Original Reports, Reviews and Essays:

2017

Kim, M.J., Mattek, A.M., Bennett, R.H., Solomon, K.M., Shin, J. & Whalen, P.J. (2017). Human amygdala tracks feature-based affective valence of emotionally ambiguous facial expressions. Journal of Neuroscience, 1375-17, doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1375-17.2017

Mattek, A.M., Wolford, G.L. & Whalen, P.J. (2017). A mathematical model captures the structure of subjective affect. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 508-526.

Kim, M.J., Shin, J., Taylor, J.M., Mattek, A.M., Chavez, S.J. & Whalen, P.J. (2017). Intolerance of uncertainty predicts increased striatal volume. Emotion, 17, 895-899.

Whalen PJ, Neta M, Kim MJ, Mattek AM, Davis FC, Taylor JM & Chavez S. (2017). Neural and behavioral responses to ambiguous facial expressions of emotion. In: Fernandez Dols, J.M. & Russell, J. (Eds.) The Science of Facial Expression. Oxford.

2016

Kim, M.J., Brown, A.C., Mattek, A.M., Chavez, S.J., Taylor, J.M., Palmer, A.L., Wu, Y-C. & Whalen, P.J. (2016). The inverse relationship between the microstructure variability of amygdala-prefrontal pathways and trait anxiety is moderated by sex. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10, 93. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2016.00093 Download PDF (2.1 MB)

Kim, M.J., Solomon, K.M., Neta, M., Davis, F.C., Oler, J.A., Mazzulla, E.C. & Whalen, P.J. (2016). A face versus non-face context influences amygdala responses to masked fearful eye whites. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 1933-1941. Download PDF (576 KB)

Mattek, A.M., Whalen, P.J., Berkowitz, J.L. & Freeman, J.B. (2016). Differential effects of cognitive load on subjective versus motor responses to ambiguously valenced facial expressions. Emotion, 16, 929-936. Download PDF (430 KB)

Davis, F.C., Neta, M., Kim, M.J., Moran J.M. & Whalen, P.J. (2016). Interpreting ambiguous social cues in unpredictable contexts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 775-782. Download PDF (315 KB)

2015

Taylor, J.M. & Whalen, P.J. (2015). Neuroimaging and anxiety: the neural substrates of pathological and non-pathological anxiety. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 1-10. Download PDF (311 KB)

Chen, P.A., Whalen, P.J., Freeman, J.B., Taylor, J.M. & Heatherton, T.F. (2015). Brain reward activity to masked in-group smiling faces predicts friendship development. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 8, 415-421. Download PDF (557 KB)

2014

Kim, M.J., Neta M., Davis, F.C., Ruberry, E.J., Dinescu, D., Heatherton, T.F., Stotland, M.A. & Whalen, P.J. (2014). Botulinum toxin-induced facial muscle paralysis affects amygdala responses to the perception of emotional expressions: preliminary findings from an A-B-A design. Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 4:11 Download PDF (549 KB)

Taylor, J.M. & Whalen, P.J. (2014). Fearful, but not angry, expressions diffuse attention to peripheral targets in an attentional blink paradigm. Emotion, 14, 462-468. Download PDF (229 KB)

Whalen, P.J. & Kelley, W.M. (2014). To apply yourself is human, to reapply divine. Neuron, 83, 1227-1228. Download PDF (164 KB)

Gee, D.G. & Whalen, P.J. (2014). The amygdala: relations to biologically relevant learning and development. In: M. Gazzaniga (Ed.). The New Cognitive Neurosciences, Fifth Edition (pp. 741-750). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

2013

Whalen, P.J., Raila, H., Bennett, R., Mattek, A., Brown, A., Taylor, J., van Tieghem, M., Tanner, A., Miner, M., & Palmer, A. (2013). Neuroscience and facial expressions of emotion: the role of amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Emotion Review, 5, 78-83. Download PDF (791 KB)

Neta, M., Kelley, W.M. & Whalen, P.J. (2013). Neural responses to ambiguity involve domain-general and domain specific emotion processing systems. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 547-557. Download PDF (380 KB)

Somerville, L.H., Wagner, D.D., Wig, G.S., Moran, J.M., Whalen, P.J., & Kelley, W.M. (2013). Interactions between transient and sustained neural signals support the generation and regulation of anxious emotion. Cerebral Cortex, 23, 49-60. Download PDF (1.3 MB)

Whalen, P.J., Kim, M.J., Neta, M. & Davis, F.C. (2013). Emotion (pp. 422-439). Handbook of Psychology (2nd Ed.). New York: Wiley.

2012

Hopkins, M.E., Davis, F.C., VanTieghem, M.R., Whalen, P.J., & Bucci, D. (2012). Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience, 215, 59-68. Download PDF (396 KB)

Adams, R.B., Franklin, R.G., Kveraga, K., Ambady, N., Kleck, R.E., Whalen, P.J., Hadjikhani, N., & Nelson, A.J. (2012). Amygdala responses to averted vs direct gaze fear vary as a function of presentation speed. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 568-577.

Whalen, P.J., Kim, M.J., Neta, M., & Davis, F.C. (2012).  Emotion.  In Nelson, R.J. & Mizumori, S. (Eds.). The Handbook of Psychology, Volume 3: Behavioral Neuroscience, Second Edition (pp. 422-439). New York, NY: Wiley.

2011

Neta, M. & Whalen, P.J. (2011). Individual differences in neural activity during a facial expression vs. identity working memory task. Neuroimage, 56, 1685-92. Download PDF (728 KB)

Neta, M., Davis, F.C. & Whalen, P.J. (2011). Valence resolution of ambiguous facial expressions using an emotional oddball task. Emotion, 11, 1425-33. Download PDF (396 KB)

Kim, M.J., Loucks, R.A., Palmer, A.L., Brown, A.C., Solomon, K.M., Marchante, A.N., & Whalen, P.J. (2011). The structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala: from normal emotion to pathological anxiety. Behavioral Brain Research, 223, 403-410. Download PDF (418 KB)

Kim, M.J., Gee, D.G., Davis, F.C. Loucks, R.A., & Whalen, P.J. (2011). Anxiety dissociates dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity with the amygdala at rest. Cerebral Cortex, 7, 1667-1673. Download PDF (492 KB) Download PDF of supporting information (160 KB)

Davis, F.C., Somerville, L.H., Ruberry, E.J., Berry, A., Shin, L.M., & Whalen, P.J. (2011). A tale of two negatives: differential memory effects associated with fearful and angry facial expressions. Emotion, 11, 647-655. Download PDF (418 KB)

Hariri, A.R. & Whalen, P.J. (2011). The amygdala: Inside and out. F1000 Biology Reports, 3, 2 (doi: 10.3410/B3-2; http://f1000.com/reports/b/3/2)

Wu, Y-C., Field, A.S., Whalen, P.J., & Alexander, A.L. (2011). Age- and gender-related changes in the normal human brain using hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI). Neuroimage, 54, 1840-1853. Download PDF (1.7 MB)

Adams, R.B., Franklin, R.G., Nelson, A.J., Gordon, H.L., Kleck, R.E., Whalen, P.J., & Ambady, N. (2011). Differentially tuned responses to restricted versus prolonged awareness of threat: a preliminary fMRI investigation. Brain and Cognition, 77, 113-119.

2010

Somerville, L.H., Whalen, P.J. & Kelley, W.M. (2010). The human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis indexes hypervigilant threat monitoring. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 416-424. Download PDF (907 KB)

Kim, M.J., Loucks, R.A., Neta, M., Davis, F.C., Oler, J.A., Mazzulla, E.C, & Whalen, P.J. (2010). Behind the mask: the influence of mask-type on amygdala responses to fearful faces. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 363-368. Download PDF (217 KB) Download PDF of supporting information (119 KB)

Neta, M. & Whalen, P.J. (2010). The primacy of negative interpretations when resolving the valence of ambiguous facial expressions. Psychological Science, 21, 901-907. Download PDF (332 KB)

Davis, F.C., Johnstone, T., Mazzulla, E.C., Oler, J.A., & Whalen, P.J. (2010). Regional response differences across the human amygdaloid complex during social conditioning. Cerebral Cortex, 20, 612-621. Download PDF (456 KB)

2009

Kim, M.J. & Whalen, P.J. (2009). The structural integrity of an amygdala-prefrontal pathway predicts trait anxiety. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 11614-11618. Download PDF (432 KB) Download PDF of supporting information (412 KB)

Neta, M., Norris, C.J., & Whalen, P.J. (2009). Corrugator muscle responses to surprised facial expressions are associated with individual differences in positivity-negativity bias. Emotion, 9(5), 640-648. Download PDF (484 KB)

Whalen, P.J. & Davis, F.C. (2009). Context effects and the amygdala.  In Gazzaniga, M. (Ed.). The New Cognitive Neurosciences, Fourth Edition (pp. 935-944). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Davis, F.C., Oler, J.A., Whalen, P.J. (2009). Emotion and vigilance (pp. 889-896). In: Squire, L. (Ed.). The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, T., Kim, M.J., & Whalen, P.J. (2009). Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the affective and social neurosciences. In: Harmon-Jones E & Beer JS (Eds.). Methods in Social Neuroscience (pp. 313-336). New York: Guilford Press.

Whalen, P.J., Davis, F.C., Oler, J.A., Kim, H., Kim, M.J., & Neta, M. (2009). Human amygdala responses to facial expressions of emotion. In P.J. Whalen & E.A. Phelps (Eds).  The Human Amygdala (pp. 265-288).  New York: Guilford Press.

Shin, L.M., Pitman, R.K., Rauch, S.L., & Whalen, P.J. (2009). The human amygdala in anxiety disorders. In P.J. Whalen & E.A. Phelps (Eds). The Human Amygdala (pp. 321-343).  New York: Guilford Press.

Whalen, P.J. (2009). Vigilance.  In: Sander, D. & Scherer, K. (Eds.). Oxford Companion to the Affective Sciences (pp. 402-403). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nitschke, J.B., Sarinopoulos, I., Oathes, D.J., Johnstone, T., Whalen, P. J., Kalin, N.H. & Davidson, R.J. (2009). Anticipatory activation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate in generalized anxiety disorder and prediction of treatment response. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 302-310.

Shin, L.M., Whalen, P.J., Pitman, R.K., & Rauch, S.L. (2009). The role of the anterior cingulate in posttraumatic stress disorder and panic disorder (pp. 453-465). In: Vogt, B.A. (Ed.). Cingulate Neurobiology and Disease. Volume 1: Infrastructure, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oler, J.A., Quirk, G.J., & Whalen, P.J. (2009). Cingulo-amygdala interactions in surprise and extinction: Interpreting associative ambiguity (pp. 207-218). In: Vogt, B.A. (Ed.). Cingulate Neurobiology and Disease. Volume 1: Infrastructure, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

2008

Demos, K.E., Kelley, W.M., Ryan, S.L., Davis, F.C., & Whalen, P.J. (2008).  Human amygdala sensitivity to the pupil size of others. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2729-2734. Download PDF (376 KB)

Whalen, P.J. & Kleck, R.E. (2008). The shape of faces (to come). Nature Neuroscience, 11, 739-740. Download PDF (308 KB)

Cloutier, J., Heatherton, T.F., Whalen, P.J., & Kelley, W.M. (2008). Are attractive people rewarding? Sex differences in the neural substrates of facial attractiveness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 941-951.

Whalen, P.J., Johnstone, T., Somerville, L.H., Nitschke, J.B., Polis, S., Alexander, A., Davidson, R.J., & Kalin, N.H. (2008). A functional MRI predictor of treatment response to venlafaxine in generalized anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 858-863. Download PDF (624 KB).

2007

Whalen P.J. (2007). The uncertainty of it all. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 499-500. Download PDF (80 KB)

Shin, L.M., Bush, G., Whalen, P.J., Handwerger, K., Cannistraro, P.A., Wright, C.I., Martis, B., Macklin, M.L., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S.P., Pitman, R.K., & Rauch, S.L. (2007). Dorsal anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Trauma and Stress, 20, 701-712.

2006

Somerville, L.H., Wig, G.S., Whalen, P.J., & Kelley, W.M. (2006). Dissociable medial temporal lobe contributions to social memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1253-1265.

Somerville, L.H. & Whalen, P.J. (2006). Prior experience as a stimulus category confound: an example using facial expressions of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 271-274 Download PDF of paper (128 KB)

Bush, G., Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., & Rauch, S.L. (2006). The counting Stroop: a cognitive interference task. Nature Protocols. 1, 230-233.

Whalen, P.J., Bush, G., Shin, L.M., & Rauch, S.L. (2006). The emotional counting stroop: a task for assessing emotional interference during brain imaging. Nature Protocols, 1, 293-296. Download PDF (126 KB)

2005

Shin, L.M., Wright, C.I., Cannistraro, P.A., Wedig, M.M., McMullin, K., Martis, B., Macklin, M.L., Lasko, N.B., Cavanagh, S.R., Krangel, T.S., Orr, S.P., Pitman, R.K., Whalen, P.J., & Rauch, S.L. (2005). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 273-281.

Johnstone, T., Somerville, L.H., Alexander, A.L., Oakes, T.R., Davidson, R.J., Kalin, N.H., & Whalen, P.J. (2005). Stability of amygdala BOLD response to fearful faces over multiple scan sessions. Neuroimage, 25, 1112-1123. Download PDF (552 KB)

2004

Kim, H., Somerville, L.H., Johnstone, T., Polis, S., Alexander, A.L., Shin, L.M., & Whalen, P.J. (2004). Contextual modulation of amygdala responsivity to surprised faces. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1730-1745. Download PDF (580 KB)

Somerville, L.H., Kim, H., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A., & Whalen, P.J. (2004). Human amygdala response during presentation of happy and neutral faces: Correlations with state anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 897-903. Download PDF (272 KB)

Whalen, P.J., Kagan, J., Cook, R.G., Davis, F.C., Kim, H., Polis, S., McLaren, D.G., Somerville, L.H., McLean, A.A., Maxwell, J.S., & Johnstone, T. (2004). Human amygdala responsivity to masked fearful eye whites. Science, 306, 2061. Download PDF (53 KB) Download PDF of supporting information (215 KB)

2003

Rauch, S.L., Phillips, K.A., Segal, E., Makris, N., Shin, L.M., Whalen, P.J., Jenike, M.A., Caviness, V.S., & Kennedy, D.N. (2003). A preliminary morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of regional brain volumes in body dysmorphic disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 122, 13-19.

Fischer, H., Wright, C.I., Whalen, P.J., McInerney, S.C., Shin, L.M., & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Brain habituation during repeated exposure to fearful and neutral faces: a functional MRI study. Brain Research Bulletin. 59, 387-392.

Schwartz, C.E., Wright, C.I., Shin, L.M., Kagan, J., Whalen, P.J., McMullin, K.G., & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Differential amygdalar response to novel versus newly familiar neutral faces: a functional MRI probe developed for studying inhibited temperament. Biological Psychiatry. 53, 854-862.

Kim, H., Somerville, L.H., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A., & Whalen, P.J. (2003). Inverse amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to surprised faces.  Neuroreport, 14, 2317-2322. Download PDF (196 KB)

Whalen, P.J. (2003). Remembering people: neuroimaging takes on the real world. Learning and Memory, 10, 240-241. Download PDF (1.3 MB)

Rauch, S.L., Shin, L.M., Segal, E., Pitman, R.K., Carson, M.A., McMullin, K., Whalen, P.J., & Makris, N. (2003). Selectively reduced regional cortical volumes in post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroreport. 14, 913-916.

2002

Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., Somerville, L.H., McLean, A.A., & Kim, H. (2002). Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 7, 234-242. Download PDF (2.1 MB)

2001

Davis, M. & Whalen, P.J. (2001). The amygdala: vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13-34. Download PDF (392 KB)

Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., McInerney, S.C., Fischer, H., Wright, C.I., & Rauch, S.L. (2001). A functional MRI study of human amygdala responses to facial expressions of fear vs. anger. Emotion, 1, 70-83. Download PDF (4 MB)

Thomas, K.M., Drevets, W.C., Dahl, R.E., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C.H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P.J., & Casey, B.J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives in General Psychiatry, 58, 1057-1063.

Shin, L.M., Whalen, P.J., Pitman, R.K., Bush, G., Macklin, M.L., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S.P., McInerney, S.C., & Rauch, S.L. (2001). An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 932-942. Download PDF (108 KB)

Wright, C.I., Fischer, H., Whalen, P.J., McInerney, S.C., Shin, L.M., Rauch, S.L. (2001). Differential prefrontal cortex and amygdala habituation to repeatedly presented emotional stimuli. Neuroreport, 12, 379-383. Download PDF (422 KB)

Rauch, S.L., Whalen, P.J., Curran, T., Shin, L.M., Coffey, B.J., Savage, C.R., McInerney, S.C., Baer, L., & Jenike, M.A. (2001). Probing striato-thalamic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome using neuroimaging methods. Advances in Neurology, 85, 207-224.

Thomas, K.M., Drevets, W.C., Whalen, P.J., Eccard, C.H., Dahl, R.E., Ryan, N.D., & Casey, B.J. (2001). Amygdala response to facial expressions in children and adults. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 309-317. Download PDF (368 KB)

Whalen, P.J., Curran, T., & Rauch, S.L. (2001). Using neuroimaging to study implicit information processing. In Dougherty, D.D. & Rauch, S.L. (Eds.). Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research: Contemporary Strategies (pp. 73-100). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.

2000

Rauch, S.L., Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., McInerney, S.C., Orr, S., Lasko, N., & Pitman, R. (2000). Exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial expressions in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 769-776. Download PDF (154 KB)

Hart, A.J., Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., McInerney, S.C., Fischer, H., & Rauch, S,L. (2000). Differential response in the human amygdala to racial outgroup versus ingroup face stimuli. Neuroreport, 11, 2351-2355. Download PDF (372 KB)

1999

Bush, G., Frazier, J.A., Rauch, S.L., Seidman, L.J., Whalen, P.J., Jenike, M.A., Rosen, B.R., & Biederman, J. (1999). Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1542-1552. Download PDF (350 KB)

1998

Whalen, P.J. (1998). Fear, vigilance, and ambiguity: initial neuroimaging studies of the human amygdala. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 177-188. Download PDF (3.6 MB)

Whalen, P.J., Rauch, S.L., Etcoff, N.L., McInerney, S.C., Lee, M., & Jenike, M.A. (1998). Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418. Download PDF (272 KB)

Rauch, S.L., Whalen, P.J., Curran, T., McInerney, S.C., & Savage, C.R. (1998). Thalamic deactivation during early implicit sequence learning: a functional MRI study. Neuroreport, 9, 865-870. Download PDF (540 KB)

Bush, G., Whalen, P.J., Rosen, B.R., Jenike, M.A., McInerney, S.C., & Rauch, S.L. (1998). The Counting Stroop: an interference task specialized for functional neuroimaging - validation study with functional MRI. Human Brain Mapping, 6, 270-282. Download PDF (372 KB)

Whalen, P.J., Bush, G., McNally, R.J., Wilhelm, S., McInerney, S., & Rauch, S.L. (1998). The emotional counting Stroop paradigm: an fMRI probe of the anterior cingulate affective division. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1219-1228. Download PDF (252 KB)

1997 and earlier

Rauch, S.L., Whalen, P.J., Savage, C.R., Curran, T., Kendrick, A., Brown, H.D., Bush, G., Breiter, H.C., & Rosen, B.R. (1997). Striatal recruitment during an implicit sequence learning task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Human Brain Mapping, 5, 124-132. Download PDF (120 KB)

Breiter, H.C., Etcoff, N.L., Whalen, P.J., Kennedy, W.A., Rauch, S.L., Buckner, R.L., Strauss, M.M., Hyman, S.E., & Rosen, B.R. (1996). Response and habituation of the human amygdala during visual processing of facial expression. Neuron, 17, 875-887.

Kapp, B.S., Supple, W.F., & Whalen, P.J. (1994). Effects of electrical stimulation of the amygdaloid central nucleus on neocortical arousal in the rabbit. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 81-93.

Whalen, P.J., Kapp, B.S., & Pascoe, J.P. (1994). Neuronal activity within the nucleus basalis and conditioned neocortical electroencephalographic activation. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 1623-1633. Download PDF (1.6 MB)

Kapp, B.S., Whalen, P.J., Supple, W.F., & Pascoe, J.P. (1992). Amygdaloid contributions to conditioned arousal and sensory information processing. In Aggleton, J.P. (Ed.). The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction (pp. 229-254). New York, NY: Wiley-Liss.

Whalen, P.J. & Kapp, B.S. (1991). Contributions of the amygdaloid central nucleus to the modulation of the nictitating membrane reflex in the rabbit. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 141-153. Download PDF (2.0 MB)

Kapp, B.S., Wilson, A., Pascoe, J.P., Supple, W.F., & Whalen, P.J. (1990). A neuroanatomical systems analysis of conditioned bradycardia in the rabbit. In Gabriel, M. & Moore, J. (Eds.). Learning and Computational Neuroscience: Foundations of Adaptive Networks (pp.53-90). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Langlais, P.J., Mair, R.G., Whalen, P.J., McCourt, W., McEntee, W.J. (1988). Memory effect of DL-threo-3,4- dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) in human Korsakoff's disease. Psychopharmacology, 95, 250-254.


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